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A blind flange is a solid flange as shown below. The purpose of these is to block off a section of pipe or a nozzle on a vessel that is not used. (A nozzle is typically a pipe coming out of a vessel and is usually flanged so it can be connected to valves or piping). Many times a nozzle will be blanked off with a blind flange for pressure tests in a plant, or simply because the customer does not need all the nozzles that were supplied on the tank. The best practice is to use a standard gasket for these blinds. Blind flanges, just like standard pipe flanges, can be raised face (RF) or flat faced (FF). If the flange is RF we would recommend a standard ring gasket that is appropriate for the service and/or test. If it is FF we would TYPICALLY use a full face gasket, because the most common reason the flange is FF is that it is not designed to handle the bending forces that result when using a ring gasket or a RF flange against the FF flange. Again, we treat a blind flange just like any other pipe flange.
This question, “Forging vs. Casting: Which is better?” is one that I have been asked many times when it comes to rigging products. To properly explore the answer, let’s first consider the process of each.
Forging and casting are two very different manufacturing methods. When something is cast, the material is heated above its melting temperature and poured into a mold where it solidifies. When something is forged it is physically forced into shape while remaining in a solid state – although it is frequently heated.
Flanges are used to connect 2 ends of a pipe or to end a pipe. They are available in various materials. Carbon Steel Flanges are one such type of flange that is usually made up of carbon steel. This material provides properties such as resistance to corrosion, excellent durability, and finishing in goods. They are available in various types. For instance,Carbon Steel Blind Flanges are used to terminate the pipe. High grade raw material is used to manufacture these flanges. They have a carbon content in the range of 0.25% to 0.60%. Due to the high volume of carbon and manganese, the fabrication of the product is excellent and ductility is also good.
For all their design innovations, railways still retain one fundamental weakness — they put metal wheels onto metal tracks.
Not just inefficient as there is limited grip between two such smooth surfaces, but noisy as well. So why don’t they use something different? It won’t surprise you to learn that railway companies have tried. And sadly failed.
It’s mainly a Frenchman we have to thank for the best attempt to deal with the metal upon metal, and that was tire magnate, Andre Michelin who upon returning from an unpleasant train trip instructed his engineers to develop something better.
Unsurprisingly for a tire manufacturer, they came up with a tire for railways.
The special pneumatic tyres, fitted with metal flanges in order to keep the coach
A forged wheel is manufactured from a billet, or a large square piece of solid metal. The billet is heated to extreme temperatures and pressurized to take its shape. This thermal cycle process causes forged wheels to be stronger than cast wheels due to grain refinement. Consistent forging makes for stronger structural integrity with less material compared to a cast wheel, however the process costs more, rendering forged wheels the more expensive option.
Forged wheels offer several advantages. The manufacturing process results in a stronger wheel by eliminating cavities, porosity, and shrinkage. Due to its tighter grain structure, forged wheels are also mechanically stronger, ensuring better wear resistance over time. You also get better performance and handling because of this process.
The cast wheel manufacturing process involves heating up aluminum until it reaches a