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Endoscopic submucosal dissection

Jun 13th, 2022 at 10:20   Phones & Tablets   Samālūţ   12 views Reference: 343

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The gastrointestinal tract (GI tract, digestive tract, alimentary canal) is the tract or passageway of the digestive system that leads from the mouth to the anus. The GI tract contains all the major organs of the digestive system,Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is an advanced surgical procedure using endoscopy to remove gastrointestinal tumors that have not entered the muscle layer. ESD may be done in the esophagus, stomach or colon. Application of endoscopic resection (ER) to gastrointestinalfunctions: a) to take a normal Pap smear with a cervical brush or a cytology brush; and b) as an internal colposcope so that the operator can pivot the Veda-scope to view any part of the vagina barrel and cervix facilitated by an internal light source that can illuminate the vaginal wall and cervix with multi-coloured light filters, which can detect pre-cancerous cells with the aid of acetic acid solution and iodine solution. It also has a facility to attach a digital camera for viewing and recording.PTHC is performed if biliary drainage catheter is not in-situ. The drainage catheter is then removed over the guidewire and sheath is inserted into the ducts (7 to 8 French size). Contrast is then injected through the sheath to identify any stones or strictures. If a stricture is identified, put in biliary manipulation catheter with guidewire measuring 0.035 inches and commence balloon dilatation (with balloon sizes of 8, 10, and 12 mm). Using the balloon catheter, the stones are pushed into the duodenum. If the stones are difficult to push, Dormier basket is used to push them into the duodenum. The basket is removed and guidewire is inserted back into the sheath. The sheath is then removed and biliary drainage catheter is inserted back through the guidewire. Contrast is then injected intermittently through the drainage catheter to follow-up on the position of the stones.

Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a technique that combines the use of endoscopy and fluoroscopy to diagnose and treat certain problems of the biliary or pancreatic ductal systems. It is primarily performed by highly skilled and specialty trained gastroenterologists. Through the endoscope, the physician can see the inside of the stomach and duodenum, and inject a contrast medium into the ducts in the biliary tree and pancreas so they can be seen on radiographs. ERCP is used primarily to diagnose and treat conditions of the bile ducts and main pancreatic duct, including gallstones, inflammatory strictures (scars), leaks (from trauma and surgery), and cancer. ERCP can be performed for diagnostic and therapeutic reasons, although the development of safer and relatively non-invasive investigations such as magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and endoscopic ultrasound has meant that ERCP is now rarely performed without therapeutic intent.

A snare is a device used to ligate blood vessels, polyps or other duct structures by tightening a slip knot made with absorbable thread or synthetic thread with a nylon rod. It is easy to operate and has been used as a polypectomy snare in a variety of laparoscopic abdominal surgeries. Snare has the advantages of safety, convenience and economy. (1) Safety: The snare is made of absorbable thread, which has little response to human tissue after being placed in the body; the operation is reversible, and the ligation position can be directly cut off; the cutting force on the tissue is smaller than that of the titanium clip, which is not easy to occur. (2) Convenience: Compared with suturing and ligating tissue under laparoscopy, the operation of using snare ligation is simple, no other special instruments are required, and the operation time can be shortened, especially for beginners, which is easy to master and use; (3) Economical: The snare is inexpensive, and its application can correspondingly reduce the consumption of the expensive endoscopic incision closure device (Endo-GIA), which reduces medical expenses to a certain extent.